Excavating, Archiving, Making Media Inscriptions // In and Beyond the Media Archaeology Lab

“Excavating, Archiving, Making Media Inscriptions // In and Beyond the Media Archaeology Lab” appears in Inscription, published in Gothenburg, Sweden by their Regional State Archives (2018): 247-272.


This autobiographical short essay provides a snapshot of how scholarship might engage with the materiality of seemingly immaterial media and thus, by extension, with the ways in which verbal/visual expressions both inscribe and are inscribed by these same media. I begin with an overview of the founding of the Media Archaeology Lab (MAL) back in 2009 and what it has evolved into since the lab moved into a new space in 2012 – a lab that tries to imagine and even reimagine what a lab could be, what it could do, in the arts/humanities. I then move on to a discussion of how the lab drives my personal research projects – from my book Reading Writing Interfaces to “Other Networks” – and thus, by extension, I hope to show the way any media archaeology lab could drive humanities-based research. The overarching argument of this piece is about the value of the interpenetration of excavating, archiving, and making material, mediated inscriptions as that which drives thinking.

The Media Archaeology Lab
The near compulsion I have had for the five years or so with trying to understand the inner workings of obsolete computers has caught me by surprise, especially since I did not own a personal computer until the mid-1990s and it has not been until recently that I have dabbled in programming and started in earnest to understand how computers work. But in retrospect the move from poetics to media archaeology makes sense and even points to one way that literary studies could be rejuvenated by expanding its sense of itself as a discipline invested in close reading (and even distant reading) whatever is conventionally accepted as a literary text. That is, literary studies could also, not instead, read both media and media inscriptions not as literary texts but as artifacts worthy of the same attention and methodological approach.

My educational background is in experimental poetry and poetics and I picked this field in the late 1990s because of my interest in the materiality of poetic expression, whether sound poetry and the material presence of the body or concrete poetry and the material shape, size, texture of individual letters created via letterpress, typewriter, or dry-transfer lettering. It was a logical move, then, into researching digital poetry as another form of experimental writing and thinking about the nature of materiality in digital poetry and electronic literature more broadly. Specifically, the work of Canadian poet bpNichol served as the crucial bridge from sound poetry, concrete poetry, and the broad range of intermedia works he produced throughout his life to digital poetry as Nichol created “First Screening” in 1982-1983 – one of the earliest kinetic digital poems. More, alongside a handful of colleagues who also work in or run labs (colleagues such as Dene Grigar, Matthew Kirschenbaum, and Darren Wershler) I soon started to see that original platforms for these works from the 1980s and early to mid-1990s were essential to the works themselves for two reasons. For one, shortly before I founded the MAL in the early to mid-2000s, anyone with an interest in early works of digital literature or art such as Nichol’s needed the original platform just to access the work (not to mention preserve it), especially in cases where no one had yet created an emulation. For another, I also started to see how original platforms are part and parcel of the works themselves, not to mention how access to these platforms gives us a deeper understanding of early digital works and how they were produced. In other words, the textual/visual elements of “First Screening” are inseparable from the underlying code (which includes a permutational code-poem not visible on screen) as well as the infrastructure of the Apple IIe computer it was written on and for, from the functioning of the machine’s floppy drive and its uniquely designed keyboard to the circuit boards and RAM chips accessible from the backside of the keyboard.

In 2009, my own solution to this need for preservation and access in digital art/literature was to create the MAL (originally named the Archaeological Media Lab) after receiving a small start-up grant from the University of Colorado Boulder.  The lab was first housed in a 7′ x 14′ foot room in a 1940s house on campus and it only housed fifteen functioning Apple IIe computers – enough so that students in my classes as well as researchers could run the original version of “First Screening” on 5.25″ floppy disks.

I tried selling the lab to the larger public during these early years by arguing that it was an entity for supporting a locavore approach to sustaining digital literature, declaring that there’s no suitable online or virtual equivalent to coming to the lab and using the original machines and the original works themselves (a pitch I also hoped justified our very modest online presence). In 2012, several English department administrative assistants arranged for what felt like a miraculous space exchange that gave the lab an entire 1200 square foot basement in another older home on campus. Ever since, thanks to this new/old space and the freedom I was granted by my university to do whatever I wanted, the lab has exploded into an utterly open-ended space for just about any kind of experimentation.

Before I expand on the specifics of the lab, I would like to emphasize that I was fortunate during these early years in having no higher authority to report to and this, coupled with the lack of a hierarchical structure, is largely what made the lab into what it is now – a fluid space for creatively undertaking research or any kind of writerly/artistic practice and one that shifts and changes according to whoever participates in the lab from one year to the next. I would also like to emphasize that over the last couple of years I have come to see that having both artists and humanists/critics involved in the ongoing process of building a lab is an extremely effective way to intervene in the science-dominated culture of labs that are all too often tightly controlled spaces closed to anyone (member of the public or member of the institution) not affiliated with the research group, procedurally rigid, as well as controlled from the top down. I have no interest in taking on “lab” as a way to emulate the sciences in this regard and I also have no interest in trying to legitimize work that takes place in the lab by giving it the veneer of scientific work. By contrast, the MAL is intended to be a porous, flexible, creative space for, again, hands-on doing/tinkering/playing/creating as an instigator for rigorous thinking in whatever register people would like. It is a place where we excavate popular analog and digital inscription devices along with unusual or rare counterparts, where we produce practice-based research projects as well as make available opportunities for artists to “make” via artist residencies, and where we simultaneously archive these devices and the art/literature created on or with these devices.

More specifically, as of October 2016, the MAL houses roughly 1500 still-functioning individual items, including analog media from the late nineteenth century through the twentieth, digital computer hardware and software, handheld devices, game consoles, and a substantial collection of manuals, journals, magazines, and books on early computing from the 1950s through the 2000s.

Just in terms of our collection of digital devices, we house thirty-five portables, seventy-three desktops, twenty-two handhelds, ten game consoles, and eight other computing devices. Given this substantial collection of media items that are meant to be turned on and actively used, the lab is therefore not a museum but rather a place where denizens can “do” media archaeology in any number of ways. That is, denizens may undertake research projects or artist residencies that involve taking apart or excavating layers of certain devices to understand how they work, tracking the manufacturing history of their parts, or putting old and new devices in conversation with each other to see how the underlying structure of seemingly similar media produces entirely different literary or artistic products; they may also engage in hands-on teaching with high school students, undergraduates and graduates to demonstrate how past technologies provide a way to re-see (or defamiliarize) present technologies and even help to resee future technologies; finally, denizens may also learn how to accession and catalog items also while collaborating on creating metadata schemes to describe holdings, learning the ways in which description (especially ones that are overly concerned with the outward appearance of an item rather than its functionality) may pre-determine and even over-determine our understanding of the item being described.

In short, then, the MAL is unique for a number of reasons. Rather than being hierarchical and classificatory both in its display/organization of inscription devices as well as people, it’s porous, flat, and branching; devices are organized in any way participants want; everything is functional and made to be turned on and experimented with to see what difference it makes to use one device or piece of software over another to denaturalize present ubiquitous technologies. Rather than setting out to adhere to specific outcomes and five year plans, we change from semester to semester and year to year depending on who’s spending time in the lab. Rather than being an entity you need to apply to be a part of or an entity you can only participate in as a student, researcher, faculty member, or librarian, for example, anyone may participate in the lab and have a say about what projects we take on and what kinds of work we do. Rather than being about the display of precious objects whereby you only ever get a sense of the external appearance or even external functionality of the objects, we encourage people to tinker, play, open things up, and disassemble. Rather than the perpetuation of neat, historical narratives about how things came to be, we encourage an experimental approach to time – we put Edison phonograph disks from 1912 beside contemporary proprietary software or we place the Vectrex gaming console and its lightpen from 1983 next to a contemporary tablet and stylus. And finally, rather than participating in the process of erasing the knowledge production process or perpetuating the illusion of a separation between those who work in the lab and the machines they work on and hiding the agency of the machines themselves as well as the agency of the larger infrastructure of the lab, we are interested in constantly situating anything and everything we do in the lab and being self-conscious, descriptive about the minute particularities of the production process for any projects we undertake.

Reading Writing Interfaces
While the MAL is defined by constant change and experimentation, I want to make it clear that I also use the lab to produce the epitome of traditional research in the humanities: the single-authored monograph book. Reading Writing Interfaces (published by the University of Minnesota Press in 2014) represents my attempt to mesh together media archaeology via the lab, media studies, and literary studies by way of a reverse chronology which I use to move back in time to look at how personal computing could have been otherwise and still could be otherwise. I also use media archaeology and the reverse chronology not just to give lip service to how we are all against “narratives of technological progress” but as a way to actually uncover examples of earlier interfaces, earlier modes of personal computing that have capabilities our contemporary devices do not have. At the same time as I identify earlier, now-defunct interfaces, I look at how writers from the present moment back to the 1980s, 1970s, 1960s, and even back to the late nineteenth century registered the affordances of other and older writing technologies by working with and against interfaces (from iPad app to command line, typewriter, and pen/paper). In this context, I’ve been working more and more on developing specific theories of media poetics – ways in which writers are not just registering through writing the affordance of whatever writing technology is at hand, but also how their media studies disrupt the ways in which corporations now work to make these affordances invisible and then celebrate invisibility in terms of the wonders of seamlessness, intuitiveness, transparency, and user-friendly.

Media poetics has become a powerful argument for the value of literature – not as something that expresses “who we are”, whoever that is, and not as something that necessarily tells stories about who we are (though it could, and sometimes does so powerfully and better than any other medium) but as something that registers media effects through inscriptions we recognize as linguistic. More than just everyday use of media, whether they are made with pen and paper, typewriter, personal computer, or on a network, these works of media poetics are limit cases of the capabilities of specific media, expressions of machines themselves just as much as they are expressions of human authors. Media poetics therefore also opens up the possibility of reading literature less for what it says and more for how it says and how  it reads its own writing process. The latter also means replacing the practice of close-reading with descriptions of media effects as an alternative mode of reading. It takes “reading” off the spectrum of close and distant reading altogether and just re-orients the object of what’s being read altogether.

However, I never would have come to above realizations about media poetics in Reading Writing Interfaces without having the chance to tinker in the Media Archaeology Lab and have hands-on access to different competing interfaces from the 70s through the 80. For example, if one just spends an hour or two in the lab, one cannot help but see how easy it is – and necessary – to open up any one of the lab’s Apple II computers and actively intervene in the machine’s capabilities rather than have it determined for me, as one experiences when one interacts with almost any Apple computer released after the Macintosh in 1984. In other words, to return once more to the example of bpNichol’s “First Screening,” the lab makes it perfectly clear not only that this piece is so much more than the text that moves across the screen (contrary to what one might believe if one only has access to the Quicktime movie emulation) and it is so precisely because of the piece’s native platform.

Other Networks
“Other Networks,” the project I am currently working on, also comes out of the MAL but originally emerged from an innocent question my colleague Matthew Kirschenbaum asked me about the place of the 1990s in my book; after mulling it over for nearly a month afterward, I realized that writers/artists were not so much working with/against the material constraints of hardware in the 1990s but rather they were working with/against networks – the newly inaugurated World Wide Web as well as thousands of other networks such as Bulletin Board Systems, Slow Scan TVs, and cable-based networks such as Canada’s NABU. The project also comes out of our experiments in the MAL to get a phone line set up and then try to surf the web using, first, the experimental browser WebStalker also from 1997, a version of Netscape from 1995, as well as MOSAIC from 1993- the first Graphical User Interface used to access to the WWW.

All of these interfaces offer completely different experiences of being online and utterly different kinds of access to information that nowadays is brought to us through the utterly naturalized interface of Google. Moreover, our inability to get many of these browsers working because of incompatible infrastructure (from the nature of our phone line to the capabilities of our campus servers) brought into relief the ways in which different networks and their differing interfaces not only shape visual/verbal inscriptions visible at the level of the screen but they more fundamentally shape the way the underlying layers are inscribed on each other.

“Other Networks” is, then, a network archaeology that once again moves from the present to the mid-60s, covering the odd history of telecommunications networks that pre-date the Internet and/or that exist outside of the Internet, networks that were imagined, planned, and created right alongside the tumultuous history of user friendly interfaces and personal computing I touch on above. The point of the project is to imagine how the Internet or how networks in general were otherwise, could have been otherwise, and still could be otherwise. At the same time, I will once again be looking at the art and literature created on these networks as they are unmatched expressions of the limits and possibilities of the networks themselves – registering networked media noise. What follows is a brief overview of three networks, some of the hardware of which is currently in the MAL.

Since the project moves from present to past, one of the first networks I discuss is called OCCUPY.HERE, created in 2012 in parallel with the Occupy Movement. OCCUPY.HERE claims it exists entirely outside of the Internet and it describes itself as “inherently resistant to surveillance.” It consists of a wifi router near Zuccotti Park in New York City and anyone with a smartphone or laptop within range of it can access it through a portal website that opens up onto what the creators describe as a Bulletin-Board System style message board on which users can share messages and files.

OCCUPY.HERE is, then, an example of a darknet – a network that uses non-standard protocols, anonymizes its users, and creates connections only between trusted users. Not surprisingly, darknets have been viewed with suspicion since the 1970’s when the U.S. military’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) coined the term “darknet” to refer to networks unavailable via ARPANet. A new wave of concern about darknet came about in 2002 when a group of Microsoft researchers published a paper titled “The Darknet and the Future of Content Protection” (Biddle et al), arguing the darknet was the greatest stumbling block to the control of digital content and devices that have already been sold to consumers. Given this history, it is not surprising that the Occupy Movement was so attracted to darknets as a means to utterly circumvent not just surveillance, but the entire economic underpinning of the internet.

3.2 The Thing
As readers work their way through descriptions of these other networks, they will undoubtedly start to notice the way the reverse chronology turns up a distinctly nonlinear or perhaps recursive history of networks, where networks emerge, disappear, and reappear slightly recalibrated. I pointed out above that OCCUPY.HERE calls itself a bulletin board system (BBS), which is a kind of network that emerged in the late 1970s. While nearly all histories of the internet agree BBSes generally died out with the introduction of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, OCCUPY.HERE is a small but effective disruption to this narrative.

Surprisingly, while there are plenty of self-published first person accounts, and plenty of enthusiasts who reminisce online about their years running or participating in BBSes, no media studies oriented book-length account has yet been written on probably the most important telecommunications network of the 1980s and 1990s. To give you some historical context, the first BBS system, called a CBBS or Computerized Bulletin Board System, was created in 1978 and was originally conceived as a computerized version of an analog bulletin board for exchanging information. Thereafter, each BBS had a dedicated phone number, which generally meant that only one person could dial in at a time; also, most BBSes were communities of local users because of how prohibitively expensive it was to make long-distance phone calls; these local users could use it to share files, read news, exchange messages publicly or privately, play games, and even create art. ANSI and ASCII art, for example, were popular art forms on BBSes.

One BBS I am particularly interested in is The Thing – a BBS that New York artist Wolfgang Staehle started in 1991, just one month after Tim Berners-Lee launched the World Wide Web. It was an online community center for artists and writers, a virtual exhibition space, and later a node in a network of international The Thing BBSes. But what particularly fascinates me about The Thing is the way in which the network itself was conceived as an artwork rather than any individual pieces of content that were uploaded to it. also hardware now in the MAL. As Staehle himself has put it,” “The whole meaning of it would come out of the relationships between the people and not the modernist ideal of the single hero artist that the market loves…”  (quoted in Kopstein)

3.3 Artex
Another important premise of the “Other Networks” project is to work against the widely accepted yet inaccurate, U.S.-centric story of the “invention” of the internet. Even well into the 1990s, there were an inordinate number of thriving networks all around the world that existed outside of the Internet and many succeeded because of government policy. For example, one network supported by the Canada Council was ARTEX, originally called ARTBOX. Founded in 1980 and lasting until 1991, ARTEX, or the ELECTRONIC ART EXCHANGE PROGRAM, was a simple and cheap electronic mail program designed to be used by artists and writers interested in what they called “alternative uses of advanced technology.”  The program and the network were provided by I.P. Sharp Associates timesharing network, a company based first in Toronto and then expanding its reach with offices (and thereby network nodes) all around the world.

An example of a writerly use of the network is Norman White’s “Hearsay” that dates from November 1985, which was a tribute to Canadian poet Robert Zend who had died a few months earlier and was known for, among other things, creating the astonishingly beautiful collection of typescapes, or typewriter landscapes, called ARBORMUNDI. “Hearsay” builds on the following text Zend wrote in 1975:


White’s “Hearsay,” on the other hand, was an event based on the children’s game of “telephone” whereby a message is whispered from person to person and arrives back at its origin, usually hilariously garbled. Zend’s text was sent around the world in 24 hours, roughly following the sun, via I.P. Sharpe Associates network. Each of the eight participating centers was charged with translating the message into a different language before sending it on. The final version, translated into English, arrived in Toronto as a fascinating example of a literary experiment with semantic and media noise:









What I have just provided, then, is a brief overview of a three “other networks.” Again, I am attempting to incorporate ideas about materiality, excavation, and the importance of hands-on work from media archaeology to undertake a network archaeology of the many different and even conflicting networks that existed before the Internet consolidated all the different networks under one protocol (TCP/IP). The larger point of this work, however, is to point to how the history of how we arrived at the Internet, and of how it came to be, is much more muddied, contradictory, and strange than has yet been accounted for.

To circle back to the beginning of my essay, I would like to note once more that the MAL and the underlying philosophy of the lab is really what is driving this project, just like it drove Reading Writing Interfaces. The project continues to develop ideas – originating in the lab and discussed in my book – about ruptures, about interfering in narratives of technological progress, about the tight connection between the materiality of a machine and what’s created on or with that machine – all ideas that come into focus when one has hands-on access to the original media.

Works Cited

Biddle, Peter, Paul English, Marcus Peinado, Bryan Willmann. “The Darknet and the Future of Content Protection.” Digital Rights Management, eds. Eberhard Becker, Willms Buhse, Dirk Günnewig, Niels Rump, Heidelberg, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2003.

Emerson, Lori, Reading Writing Interfaces: From the Digital to the Bookbind, Minneapolis 2014.

Kopstein, Joseph. “‘The Thing’ Redialed: how a BBS changed the art world and came back from the dead.'” The Verge (13 March 2013). <http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/15/4104494/the-thing-reloaded-bringing-bbs-networks-back-from-the-dead&gt;.

Nichol, bp. “First Screening.”<http://vispo.com/bp/index.htm&gt;.

Media Archaeology Lab. <http://mediaarchaeologylab.com&gt;.

Occupy.Here. <https://occupyhere.org/&gt;.

White, Norman. “Hearsay.” <http://alien.mur.at/rax/ARTEX/hearsay.html&gt;.

Zend, Robert. ARBORMUNDI, Vancouver, Canada: Blewointment Press, 1982.

—“The Message.” From Zero to One. Mission, Canada: Sono Nis Press, 1973, p. 61.



Media Archaeology Lab as Platform for Undoing and Reimagining Media History

“The Media Archaeology Lab as Platform for Undoing and Reimagining Media History” appears in Hands on Media History: A new methodology in the humanities and social sciences (Routledge 2019), edited by Nick Hall and John Ellis.


It is hard not to notice the rapid proliferation of labs in the arts and humanities over the last ten years or so – labs that now number in the thousands in North America alone and that are anything from physical spaces for hands-on learning and research to nothing more than a name for an idea or a group of people with similar research interests, or perhaps a group of people who share only a reading list and have no need for physical space and no interest in taking on infrastructural thinking through shared physical space. Regardless of their administrative organization, focus, funding, equipment or outputs (or lack thereof), the proliferation of these labs reflects a sea-change in how the humanities are trying to move away from the 19th century model of academic work typified by the single scholar who works in the boundaries of a self-contained office and within the confines of their discipline to produce a single-authored book that promotes a clearly defined set of ideas.

Instead, humanities scholars seem to be rallying around the term “lab” (along with “innovation” and “interdisciplinary” and “collaborative” – terms that are all invoked whenever the topic of labs come up) likely because this particular term and structure helps scholars put into better focus their desires for a mode of knowledge production appropriate to the 21st century – what one might call “posthumanities” after Rosi Braidotti’s articulation of it in The Posthuman as a humanities practice focused on human-non-human relationships, “heteronomy and multi-faceted relationality” and one that also openly admits, in Braidotti’s words once more, that “things are never clear-cut when it comes to developing a consistent posthuman stance, and linear thinking may not be the best way to go about it.” For me, in more concrete terms, this version of posthumanities work means pursuing modes of knowledge production that are quick on their feet, responsive, conversational or dialogical, emergent. collaborative, transparent, and self-conscious. They are interested in recording their knowledge production processes; and experimental about what constitutes a rigorous knowledge production and distribution process. These are perhaps by now tired clichés of the kind of work many would like to do, many believe they do, and that many administrators would like to see humanists do; but it is still worth noting that – more because of a longstanding lack of access to both material and immaterial resources than a lack of imagination – very few are actually able do this kind of work. This trend to create labs, even if only in name, is also a response to pressures humanists are feeling to both legitimize and even “pre-legitimize” what they do as increasingly they are expected not just to “perform” but, more importantly, to prove they’re performing. The proof of performance is possibly now more important than the performance itself. And where else do we get our ideas about “proof” but from some notion of how the sciences are in the business of proving the rightness or wrongness of theories about reality by way of the “discovery” of facts that takes place in a laboratory environment?

As popular figures in Science and Technology Studies such as Bruno Latour (particularly in his classic Laboratory Life from 1979, co-written with Steve Woolgar) and Donna Haraway (in her essay “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective”) have been teaching us for several decades: these notions about proof and the scientific method do not need to have any grounding in how scientific truth is actually produced or manufactured – it is more about trying to figure out why the continual circulation of a particular cultural belief is necessary. I have come to see that the staying power of this belief about the nature of proof and scientific practice is derived not so much from scholars’ obliviousness or ignorance about these convention-bound processes of legitimation but instead from the importance of maintaining belief in humanism, even though it appears we are just talking about science. A belief about how scientists “discover” truth depends on the related belief that scientists are not affected by the agency of their tools, machines, the outside world, other people (Latour, 1986). This is a belief that is a cornerstone of humanism and thus it is just as much a part of the humanities as it is a part of the sciences, for the prevailing belief in the humanities seems to be that humanists are also not affected by their tools, machines, the outside world, other people. Microsoft Word is simply a tool I use to produce articles and books. Google is simply a search engine I use to discover relevant information. The Graphical User Interface just happens to be the easiest way for me to interact with my computer. Regardless of the constant admonition from administrators to innovate, collaborate, incubate and whatever other entrepreneurial terminology you can think of, at the end of the day our raises, appointments, ability to get jobs, and much else besides, depends on continually manufacturing the illusion of a clear separation between ourselves, others, and the rest of the material world.

It is true that some humanities labs appropriate a  traditional notion of labs from the sciences as a way to continue humanism but they do so under the auspices of innovation – the Stanford Literary Lab, when it was under the directorship of Franco Moretti, is the most well-known example of this as Moretti described the lab’s main project of “distant reading” as one driven by the desire for “a more rational literary history” because “[q]uantitative research provides a type of data which is ideally independent of interpretations” (Moretti, 2003). But, these instances aside, what does a uniquely humanities lab look like – or what could such a lab look like if it did not feel compelled to respond to the aforementioned pressures to perform and “objectively” measure such performance? How could such a lab even creatively make the most of its more limited access to the kinds of resources large science labs depend on and instead embrace what I called above the posthumanities?

The Lab Book: Situated Practices in Media Studies (forthcoming from the University of Minnesota Press and co-written by myself along with Jussi Parikka and Darren Wershler) investigates the history as well as the contemporary landscape of humanities-based media labs – including, of course, labs that openly identify as being engaged – in terms of situated practices – with the digital humanities. Part of the book’s documentation of the explosion of labs or lab-like entities around the world over the last decade or so includes a body of over sixty interviews with lab directors and denizens. The interviews not only reveal profound variability in terms of these labs’ driving philosophy, funding structures, infrastructures, administration, and outputs. They also clearly demonstrate how many of these labs do not explicitly either embody or refute scientificity so much as they pursue 21st century humanities objectives (which could include anything from research into processes of subjectivation, agency and materiality in computational culture to the production of narratives, performances, games, and/or music) in a mode that openly both acknowledges and carefully situates research process as well as research products, the role of collaboration, and the influence of physical and virtual infrastructure. While, outside of higher education, “lab” can now refer to anything from a line of men’s grooming products to a department store display or even a company dedicated to psychometric tracking, across the arts and humanities “lab” still has tremendous, untapped potential to capture a remarkable array of methodically delineated and self-consciously documented entities for experimentation and collaboration that may or may not include an attention to history – though they almost always include an emphasis on “doing” or hands-on work of some kind.

I also view The Lab Book as an opportunity to position the Media Archaeology Lab (MAL) in the contemporary landscape of these aforementioned humanities/media labs. Since 2009, when I founded the MAL, the lab has become known as one that undoes many assumptions about what labs should be or do. Unlike labs that are structured hierarchically and driven by a single person with a single vision, the MAL takes many shapes: it is an archive for original works of early digital art/literature along with their original platforms; it is an apparatus through which we come to understand a complex history of media and the consequences of that history; it is a site for artistic interventions, experiments, and projects; it is a flexible, fluid space for students and faculty from a range of disciplines to undertake practice-based research; it is a means by which graduate students come for hands-on training in fields ranging from digital humanities, literary studies, media studies and curatorial studies to community outreach and education. In other words, the MAL is an intervention in “labness” insofar as it is a place where, depending on your approach, you will find opportunities for research and teaching in myriad configurations as well as a host of other, less clearly defined activities made possible by a collection that is both object and tool. My hope is that the MAL can stand as a unique humanities lab that is not interested in scientificity but that is instead interested in experiments with temporality, with a see-saw and even disruptive relationship between past, present and future, and in experiments with lab infrastructure in general.

From Archaeological Media Lab to Media Archaeology Lab
The MAL is now a place for hands-on, experimental teaching, research, artistic practice, and training using one of the largest collections in North America of still functioning media spanning roughly a 130 year period – from a camera from 1880, a collection of early 20th century magic lanterns and an Edison diamond disc phonograph player to hardware, software and game consoles from the mid-1970s through the early 2000s. However, the MAL initially came to life in 2008-2009 as the Archaeological Media Lab. At that time, the field of media archaeology had not yet become well known in North America and the lab was nothing more than a small room on the campus of the University of Colorado at Boulder containing fifteen Apple IIe computers, floppy drives, and copies on 5.25″ floppy disks of a work I had come to admire very much: First Screening, one of the first (if not the first) digital kinetic poems created by the Canadian experimental poet bpNichol.

I began the lab partly because I wanted to start experimenting with stockpiling hardware and software as a complimentary preservationist strategy to creating emulations such as the one of First Screening that had recently been made available. Without being aware of the very nascent debates in archivist communities that were then pitting emulation against original hardware/software, I wanted to augment students’ and scholars’ access to early works of digital literature and art while also collecting other works and their original platforms in order to eventually make available emulations of these works.

However, I also created the lab because I wanted to bring in small undergraduate and graduate classes to work directly on the machines, with the original work by bpNichol, rather than only study the emulated version. In other words, the lab allowed me to think through with my students the difference the original material, tactile environment makes to our understanding of First Screening.

It was a straightforward enough experiment, but even now in 2017, the implications of this kind of literary/historical work are far reaching and unsettling to the discipline. The foregoing first involves turning away from close reading and from studying literary products (as surface effects), to studying instead the literary production process – looking at how a literary work was made and how the author pushed up against the limits and possibilities of particular writing media. From there, the ramifications of such an approach start to become more obvious as soon as one realizes that learning and teaching “the how” of literary production cannot take place without access to the tools themselves in a hands-on lab environment. That said, while using hands-on work not just as an added feature but as the driving force behind teaching and research is quite new to the humanities, the production-oriented approach to interpreting literature has been around in one form or another since the early twentieth century. As many are fond of pointing out, nearly all foundational media studies scholars (from Walter Benjamin to Marshall McLuhan and Friedrich Kittler) were first literary scholars; moreover, one can read the long history of experimental writers, especially poets, as one that is inherently about experimenting with writing media – whether pens, pencils, paper or typerwiters and personal computers.

Since my academic background is in twentieth century experimental poetry and poetics, the move to exploring the materiality of early digital poetry was a logical next step. Furthermore, once my attention turned to the intertwinement of First Screening with the Apple IIe, it likewise made sense to add to the lab’s collection other, comparable personal computers from the early 1980s such as the Commodore 64 – at least partly to get a sense of why bpNichol might have chosen to spend $1395 on the IIe rather than $595 on the C64. (The answer likely lies in the fact that the IIe was one of the first affordable computers to include uppercase and lowercase along with an 80-column screen, rather than the C64’s 40-column display for uppercase letters only.)

In these early years, I tried to sell the lab to the larger public by saying that it was an entity for supporting a locavore approach to sustaining digital literature – a pitch I also hoped justified our very modest online presence while also underscoring the necessity of working directly with the machines in the lab rather than accessing, say, an Apple IIe or Commodore 64 emulator online. Thus, from 2009 until 2012, the “Archaeological Media Lab” maintained its modest collection of early digital literature and hardware/software from the early 80s and gradually increased its network of supporters – from eBay sellers who had become ardent supporters of the lab, to students and faculty from disciplines ranging from Computer Science, Art, Film Studies, and English literature, to digital archivists. However, 2012 was a turning point for the lab for a number of reasons: first, and most importantly, the lab was given a 1000 square foot space in the basement of an older home on the edge of campus, making it possible for the lab to become the open-ended, experimental space it is today with the largest collections of still-functioning media in North America; second, I renamed the lab the “Media Archaeology Lab” to better align it with the field of media archaeology I was then immersed in; and third, the MAL became a community enterprise no longer synonymous just with me – now the lab has an international advisory board of scholars, archivists, and entrepreneurs which I consult every six months, faculty fellows from CU Boulder, a regularly rotating cohort of undergraduate interns, graduate research assistants, post-graduate affiliates, and volunteers from the general public.

The lab, called the Media Archaeology Lab since 2012, is also now a kind of anti-museum museum in that all of its hundreds of devices, analog and digital, are meant to be turned on and actively played with, opened up, tinkered with, experimented with, created with, and moved around and juxtaposed next to any other device. Again, everything that is on display is functional though we also have a decent stockpile of spare parts and extra devices. The MAL is particularly strong in its collection of personal computers and gaming devices from the 1970s through the 1990s ranging from the Altair 8800b (1976), the complete line of Apple desktop computers from an Apple I replica (1976/2012) to models from the early 2000s, desktops from Sweden (1981) and East Germany (1986), a Canon Cat computer (1987 – I discuss this machine in detail in the following section), and game consoles such as Magnavox Odyssey (1972), Video Sports (1977) , Intellivision (1979), Atari 2600 (1982), Vectrex (1982), NES (1983) and other Nintendo devices. These are just a handful of examples of hundreds of machines in the MAL collection in addition to thousands of pieces of software, magazines, books and manuals on computing from the 1950s to the present as well as the aforementioned analog media we house from the nineteenth and 20th centuries.

A Case Study in Undoing and Reimagining Computer History: the Canon Cat
While I am attempting to illustrate the remarkable scope of the MAL’s collection, I am also trying to show how anomalies in the collection quietly show how media history, especially the history of computing, is anything but a neat progression of devices simply improving upon and building upon what came before; instead, we can understand the waxing and waning of devices more in terms of a phylogenetic tree whereby devices change over time, split into separate branches, hybridize, or are terminated. Importantly, none of these actions (altering, splitting, hybridizing, or terminating) implies a process of technological improvement and thus, rather than stand as a paean to a notion of linear technological history and progress, the MAL acts as a platform for undoing and then reimagining what media history is or could be by way of these anomalies.

The Canon Cat is one of the best examples I’ve come up with of a machine that disrupts any attempt to narrativize a linear arc of past/present/future that supports notions of progress or even notions of regression. This machine was designed by Jef Raskin after he left Apple in the early 1980s and it was introduced to the public by Canon in 1987 for $1495 – roughly $3316 in 2017, the year of this writing. Although the Cat was discontinued after only six months, around 20,000 units were sold during this time. The Canon Cat is a particularly unusual device as it was neither behind the times nor ahead of its time – it was actually very much of its time, albeit a time that does not fit into our usual narrative of the history of personal computing.

First, this machine was marketed as an “Advanced Work Processor.” Although it looks like a word processor, the Cat was meant to be a step beyond both the IBM Selectric Typewriter and conventional word processors. It came with standard office suite programs, a built-in communications device, a 90,000 word dictionary, and the ability to program in Forth and assembly language. While the Cat was explicitly not a word processor, it was also not supposed to be called a “personal computer” because its interface was distinctly different from both the command-line interface and the Graphical User Interface (GUI) that, by 1987, had already become inseparable from the idea of a personal computer. Try to imagine a computer that had no concept of files and no concept of menus. Instead, all data was seen as a long “stream” of text broken into several pages. And so even though the interface was text based (it does not make use of mouse, icons or graphics), its functions were built right into the keyboard. Whereas with a machine that uses a GUI you might use the mouse to navigate to a menu and select the command “FIND”, with the Cat you use the “LEAP” keys.

But before I can explain how LEAP works, I need to explain the remarkable way Raskin designed the cursor, because the cursor is part-and-parcel of the LEAP function. The Cat’s cursor has several states: narrow, wide, and extended. In addition to the variable cursor states, the cursor blink rate also indicates the state of the text.  The cursor blink rate has two states: clean (whereby the cursor blinks at a rate of roughly 3 Hz to indicate that all changes to the text have been saved to a disk) and dirty (whereby the cursor blinks at a rate of about 1 Hz to indicate that changes have been made to the text and they have not been saved to a disk). Leaping, then, is the Cat’s method of cursor movement; you can leap forward and backward using the LEAP FORWARD and LEAP BACKWARD keys.  While the LEAP FORWARD key is held, a pattern may be typed.  While the pattern is being typed, the cursor immediately moves forward and lands on the first character of the first occurrence of the pattern in the text. LEAP BACKWARD behaves the same as LEAP FORWARD except that the cursor moves in the opposite direction through the text. Note that LEAP was, at that time, roughly fifty times faster than the same function on the Apple Macintosh and possibly just as fast as “FIND” is on our contemporary machines.

I have only discussed two features of the Cat – the cursor functionality and LEAP, both of which make it possible to do many more things than we can do today with FIND or control-F or with our generally single-purpose cursor. My point is that, just on the face of it, the Canon Cat disrupts even the most nuanced genealogical accounts of computers and digital devices. Where does a Work Processor fit in the history of computing – a history that nearly always glides seamlessly from IBM Selectric, to kit computers, mini computers, micro computers, word processors and personal computers? More, this disruption only becomes evident when you look not at the Cat’s outward appearance, its style and design, but at its functionality.

It is also important to note the bundle of contradictions and inaccuracies the Cat’s functionality brings to light as they show us the mismatch between what we believe is the history of computing versus the disruptions to this story represented by machines such as the Cat. For example, while, beginning with the Macintosh, Apple may have had an uncanny knack for weaving design into marketing, that certainly wasn’t the case across the board. The design and marketing of computers in the 1980s were not necessarily one and the same as Raskin’s vision for the machine was consistently contradicted by Canon. For example, Canon sold the Cat as a secretarial workstation and therefore represented it in promotional materials as a closed system. While in fact, the Cat was designed not only to integrate with third-party software but it also had a connector and software hooks for a pointing device that could be added on later. Moreover, despite Canon’s efforts to market the machine as closed, somehow Raskin was able to make sure the Cat came with a repair manual and very detailed schematics for how to dis-assemble and re-assemble every single part of the machine.  The Apple Macintosh, by contrast, never came with anything like schematics; in fact, Apple openly discouraged people from opening up the Macintosh and repairing it themselves, in the same way that our Apple devices nowadays are similarly hermetically sealed (Emerson, 2014). Furthermore, while the Cat was consistently marketed by Canon in terms of its speed and efficiency, reinforcing our belief that these are the two markers of progress when it comes to digital technology, Raskin himself seemed to take pride in making heretical statements about how his designs were based on an “implementation philosophy which demanded generality and human usability over execution speed and efficiency” (quoted in Feinstein, 2006). By contrast, every single bit of Canon’s promotional material for the Cat – from videos to magazine ads to the manuals themselves – emphasized the machine’s incredible speed.

A Variantology of Hands-On Practices
The MAL, then, is essential for exploring the functionality of historically important media objects – functionality that cannot be understood in any depth if one only has access to promotional material or archival documents and that fundamentally shapes one’s understanding of the media object’s place in the history of technology. Otherwise put, the lab invites one to reread media history in terms of non-linear and non-teleological series of media phenomena – or ruptures – as a way to avoid reinstating a model of media history that tends toward narratives of progress and generally ignores neglected, failed, or dead media.

I have also come to understand the MAL as a sort of “variantological” space in its own right, a place where, depending on your approach, you will find opportunities for research and teaching in myriad configurations as well as a host of other, less clearly defined activities made possible by a collection of functioning items that are both object and tool. In other words, the lab is both an archive of hardware and software that are themselves objects of research at the same time as the hardware and software generate new research and teaching opportunities.

For example, in terms of the latter, in the last three years the lab’s vitality has grown substantially because of the role of three PhD students who are developing their own unique career trajectories in and through the lab. The results have already been extraordinary. One student, who wishes to obtain an academic position after graduation, has created a hands-on archive of scanners in conjunction with a dissertation chapter, soon-to-be published as an article, on the connections between the technical affordances of scanners and online digital archives. Another student, who wishes to obtain a curatorship after graduation, founded an event series called MALfunctions which pairs nationally and internationally recognized artists with critics on topics related to the MAL collection; this student also arranges residencies at the lab for these visiting artists/critics who, in turn, generate technical reports on their time spent in the MAL; furthermore, as a result of her work with this event series, this student has been invited to be a curator for annual media arts festivals and local museums and galleries. Yet another student, who wishes to pursue a career in alternative modes of teaching and learning, has started a monthly retro games night targeted specifically for members of the LGBTQ community at CU; she also is running monthly workshops teaching students and members of the public how to fix vintage computers and game consoles as well as the basics of surveillance and privacy; as a result of her work, this student was invited to run a workshop at the Red Hat Summit in Boston, MA in Spring 2017.

In sum, the MAL is unique for a number of reasons. Rather than being hierarchical and classificatory both in its display of objects as well as its administrative organization of people, the MAL is porous, flat, and branching objects are organized in any way participants want; everything is functional and made to be turned on. Rather than setting out to adhere to specific outcomes and five year plans, we change from semester to semester and year to year depending on who’s spending time in the lab. Rather than being an entity you need to apply to be a part of or something you can only participate in as a researcher, librarian, PhD student, anyone may participate in the lab and have a say about what projects we take on, what kinds of work we do. Rather than being about the display of precious objects whereby you only ever get a sense of the external appearance or even external functionality of the objects, we encourage people to tinker, play, open things up, dissassemble. Rather than the perpetuation of neat, historical narratives about how things came to be, we encourage an experimental approach to time – put Edison disks beside contemporary proprietary software or put the Vectrex and its lightpen up next to a contemporary tablet and stylus to see what we can learn through the juxtapositions. And finally, rather than participating in the process of erasing the knowledge production process or perpetuating the illusion of a separation between those who work in the lab and the machines they work on and hiding the agency of the machines themselves as well as the agency of the larger infrastructure of the lab, we are interested in constantly situating anything and everything we do in the lab and being self-conscious, descriptive about the minute particularities of the production process for any projects we undertake.

In short, it’s my hope that the MAL can be a tool for moving away from humanism and traditional humanities work and instead tentatively, provisionally model what posthumanities work might look like.

Braidotti, Rosi. (2013). The Posthuman. Oxford, UK: Polity, 143.

Emerson, Lori. (2014). Reading Writing Interfaces: From the Digital to the Bookbound. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 47-85.

Feinstein, Jonathan S. (2006). The Nature of Creative Development. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 148.

Haraway, Donna. (1988). “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” Feminist Studies, 14:3 (Autumn), 575-599.

Latour, Bruno and Steve Woolgar. (1986). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. 2nd edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 240.

Moretti, Franco. (2003). “Graphs, Maps, and Trees: Abstract Models for Literary History.” New Left Review 24 (November-December), 67-93.


transcript of an interview with Nick Montfort on the Trope Tank

Early last spring I had the great fortune of spending a week at the MIT Media Lab interviewing folks and studying the lab’s organization and infrastructure; while I was on campus, I also got to see Nick Montfort’s Trope Tank, what I called in an earlier blog post a “sister lab” to the Media Archaeology Lab. While Nick has already generously contributed to Darren Wershler’s, Jussi Parikka’s and my growing collection of over sixty interviews with arts and humanities-based lab directors and denizens around the world, he also agreed to Skype in with me from New York while I visited the Trope Tank in person. What follows is the transcript (conscientiously typed out by Kolby Harvey) from that interview, along with pictures from my visit there.


Lori Emerson: I wasn’t prepared to meet with you, Nick, otherwise I would have prepared a nice set of questions for you this morning, so it’ll be a little haphazard.

Nick Montfort: You know, if you want to talk more remotely, if you want to talk by phone or video conference, we can do that anytime. If there’s anything occasioned by your visit you want to ask about or anything else, it’s a good time for me.

LE: Yeah, that’s great. And I think this is probably a good time to ask you about space and infrastructure, since I’m here in person, and it’s something I’ve been thinking about all week. I don’t know where to begin exactly. Maybe I’ll just start with the question of how do you think that the space that you’ve been given shapes the kinds of work that you’re able to do?

NM: Well, there’s many ways. One of the things is just that there’s a constraint of size. If you had maybe a large area—we do have meetings in the middle of the room here—but if you had a very large area, with maybe in some ways a similar setup with computers around the sides, then you could accommodate different types of activities and maybe more people. We have class visits as one thing that we do here. In our school at MIT and the whole of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences, most of the classes are no more than 18 students. They’re seminar style classes or workshop classes. So, 18 students, it’s not very comfortable, but 18 students can come in and we can work here. If it were much smaller or if it were a closet that we could take the equipment out of sometimes, that would be different also.

LE: How do you orchestrate that? Do you have four students working on one computer at the same time?

NM: We do have stations where students can work together, so a few on the Commodore 64, a few on the Apple II. Often in fact we have students using 6502-based machines, so they’re Atari 400, and even the Atari VCS. So they’re actually all using systems that have the same processor, but they’re very different because the memory map is different, the chip set is different, there’s many other things.

So, working together, we do have some students…I usually ask one person to work and the others to take some notes and then switch around so each person has experience. Of course they talk. The nice thing about that is they’ll talk with each other and try to figure out how to put the cartridge into the Atari VCS and use the system and things like this. So that type of work I think goes pretty well. We’ve had Commodore 64 basic programming workshops where people come specifically to learn about Basic and write Basic programs and they write small games during the workshops and things like this. But when a class visits to learn about the material history of digital media, people don’t have in mind “I want to do a project, I want to write something in Basic,” and so having different stations and then having them rotate through the stations and discuss the difference, it’s effective.

LE: I’ve got two questions. One thing that I’ve been doing and posting on the Media Archaeology Lab website is that I’ve been collecting class assignments that people can do in a lab that is like the Media Archaeology Lab or Trope Tank. Do you have a collection of assignments, by any chance, that you’d be willing to share with me?

NM: Yeah, there is a technical report where we talk about some of the class visits. I don’t have it written down except for the things that are noted there. Sometimes we have a material history of the text class come, sometimes we have a comparative media studies class. I bring my classes to look at interactive narrative and text generation types of work, historically. So [inaudible] different things.

LE: There’s a fair amount of traces of administrative work in your lab too, like nice laminated signs, display cases, and the printed-out Trope Tank reports. Who’s doing all of that work? Is that you? And are you getting some sort of report from MIT in terms of teaching release or something?

NM: Yeah, I have a teaching research assistant who is part of the graduate program in comparative media studies and is being involved in research in various ways. So a research assistant who does things like cataloging materials and producing these types of placards in addition to contributing to research projects. Some of the work is quite specifically directed toward research that we’re doing, and some of it is basically in support of having a lab be a place where people can explore and learn in casual encounters with the different resources that have to happen for visitor group that comes in or a class. We do things [for those] who more seriously like programming and trying things out or studio-style work in some cases. But then that type of material is important so that the people who come—not just class visits, not just research visitors, but also people who come to the People’s Republic of Interactive Fiction, which is the local interactive fiction club. In fact there’s another card. You should take one of the cards advertising the PRIF. That’s going to be more or less above the Commodore 64. It’s on an easel.

LE: Do you have open house hours every day, or is it just if somebody is here?

NM: No, we don’t have a staff. It’s not a library-type facility. We also don’t circulate materials. If somebody wants to take something and use it in a class, we do take things places, but we don’t loan out books or software, because we don’t have library markings. We don’t have a circulation system. We don’t have people to track that and deal with that. My students, basically what I arrange, one of the resources at hand is a collection you might be looking at if you’re passing that way [inaudible] choose-your-own-adventure-style books and so those are the focus of the first half of my interactive narrative class. Several of them are in the library but not all of them, so students actually do want to come and look at them. And so generally in the lab, people use the resources but it’s best to make an appointment. Except for my office hours, which are not really for people who are using the facilities, except for that, there’s not really a designated time.

LE: One big difference I’ve noticed between your lab and my lab is it looks like you’ve dedicated probably 50% of your space to printed matter and documentation, games, game cartridges rather than just buying up every single machine and console you can get your hands on. Is that an intentional choice? I’m sure it was.

NM: Some people have every NES cartridge. We don’t really look for completionism in doing this. In fact mostly we haven’t really tried to build the physical media/software collections because if someone wanted to come, if someone decided…I’m trying to think of something we don’t have…let’s say someone is interested in Myst, which many people are, they want to look at the entire oeuvre, not just Myst, Riven, Myst 3, but all the stuff. If you can get it online, you know, if you can get it from ebay or another source, then we do have machines that would run that. So, if somebody has a very specific focus, we don’t really hope what they’re interested in will already be there. Instead we say, “Get the software. We have the means to use it.” But if somebody has more general sort of interests…for instance, one of the things that was of interest to my post-doc, from Poland, a Ph.D. student who was here recently, he started looking at the Intellivision cartridges and that there are these overlays. They come with these pieces of plastic that snap over the controller. And in fact the Atari Jaguar also has these. And there’s other things that are called overlays; you don’t see it in the Asteroids game, but Space Invaders we were using the bases and your ship look different, they’re a different color. It basically just does a job. On the screen, there’s a transition piece of plastic, and it’s more noticeable on Star Castle and things like this. There’s this idea of putting something physical over the display or the controller. That’s the type of thing our lab is great for, because you can look around and see we have, not every console, not every computer, but a variety of stuff, and we have the physical media. And it’s not deep work or something like that, but rather a broader sort of idea. So that’s the thing that can be supported. One of the reasons there’s a lot of printed matter is proving that things in books and magazines, specifically printed computer programs in books and magazines, was a major early method of transmission. We don’t have a full [line?] of creative computing. I would love to have that. Again, we don’t want to be completionist in this endeavor, but we want to have a [inaudible] can say “Oh look, this issue of RUN Magazine has a one-liner? that people can quickly type in and see what…

This book on computer games has long programs. People sat there and typed these whole things in to play games on their system. And then there’s also books like the game books, multi-sequential books, that have a relationship to digital interactive narrative, so we’re interested in materialities extending into print.

We have a dot matrix printer, we have a letterpress, and so on. So we’re sort of interested in materiality in the history of computing, but also going back to the way that texts were represented before.

NM: I remember your description of the Media Archaeology Lab and I thought “Oh! This is a lab that’s unique in all the same ways that we say the Trope Tank is.” But there are differences. Some people emphasize home computers. Some people are exclusively interested in video games. One thing that might be different than some people’s collection is putting home computers and video games together. They use the same processor in some instances, they’re made by the same company, the same companies release the game for both systems. [inaudible]

I’m sort of interested in opposing the really severe, austere game studies perspective of looking only at games, caring only about games, because I just see that as another really interesting type of computing along with what bpNichol did.

We don’t have people who come for a short time, generally…researchers. Sometimes someone who’s around at MIT is interested in looking at something, but generally we don’t have people who visit and use these resources and materials. The fewer people that we have tend to be involved more deeply.


We did an exhibit of games by the book, which is another good book computing type of exhibit, where we had four video games in the Hayden library, which is actually in this building. It’s right across the courtyard. And we had games that were based on literary books—The Great Gatsby, Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. We have a flyer that serves as a catalogue for that.

LE: It’s interesting being here in your lab because for one thing, I think labs run by people with literary backgrounds or literary interests are very different than other kinds of labs, and I think that probably accounts for the ways in which our labs are similar. Mine has the same cross-section of stuff that yours does. I have a big printed matter collection, typewriters, 19th-century media that I’m really interested in in terms of their inscription abilities. But I think mine is probably most different than yours because of the space, because I just happened to stumble upon a much larger space than yours that sort of indulged my collecting tendencies. As the lab has evolved, I think it’s become more reflective of my own idiosyncrasies as a scholar, and I can sort of see you in all of this, Nick Montfort the scholar, in this configuration. Does that make sense?

NM: The Trope Tank, it’s a big space for somebody’s office, but it’s not, obviously, a giant lab space. But it feels actually connected to the main buildings at MIT. You can walk from the main buildings of MIT inside either way. And all the access to transportation. Being able to make these connections within the MIT community, you know, interactive fiction club and things like that is one of the useful things about it. Things are pretty packed in […] The setup I really hate is when only one person can sit at a computer. You see that in some of these classrooms of the future or whatever from years past when you had desktop computers. There would only be room for one chair to go under one computer. It doesn’t promote collaboration as well as I’d like. It also just doesn’t, with all of the printed materials and everything, it doesn’t have room for you to really have a manual and a magazine on the desk. There were a few things of course I’d like. I’d like to have more room for that reason. We do what we can with this.


We have a few things down in New York. In fact, when I went to Montreal for this demo party, I took a Commodore 64 from here. And that allows me to do things like there’s a place, a gallery here in town. So I can do a Commodore 64 workshop at the NYU Game Center, so it allows me to do events and things like that are New York based.

LE: You know, you really got me thinking too, not just about the space inside the lab but how I should be thinking about the surrounding space as well, because the way that your lab is situated in this pretty busy building that’s interconnected to all these MIT departments and classrooms and so on is really different from mine, because mine is in a basement in a 1940s house on the far edge of campus. And I’ve actually come to really love the isolation, because it allows us to do anything we want, and we put on wackadoo performances and crank up the volume and the amplifiers, and there’s nobody around to care. But it’s definitely really different from your setup.

NM: Yeah, we only have very small events. We did actually have a small workshop in here just last month. But we only have very, very small events in the Trope Trank. But I can just reserve a room that’s a few feet away basically, so that’s not such a problem.

LE: All right, Nick. I think that’s all I got for you today. Thank you!

sister labs // Signal Lab & Media Archaeological Fundus

For years now, I’ve been yearning to go to Berlin to visit two labs that have the closest kinship to my own Media Archaeology Lab: the Signal Lab, run by Stefan Höltgen, and the Media Archaeological Fundus, founded by Wolfgang Ernst and now also run by Stefan. I finally got my chance to tour both labs in early February of this year, partly for pure pleasure and partly as a way to begin research for THE LAB BOOK: Situated Practices in Media Studies that Darren Wershler, Jussi Parikka and I are writing for the University of Minnesota Press.

While I’ve had some email correspondence with both Stefan and Wolfgang over the years about our labs, I didn’t realize how closely aligned our labs were until this visit. All three labs, including the MAL, are driven not by a nostalgic impulse or a desire to act as mini museums. Instead, we have all appropriated the science-based infrastructure of the lab for (anti) humanistic ends as we perform hands-on experiments with functioning media from the 19th and 20th centuries as a way to discover what Ernst has called the “time criticality” of each device.

There are, however, a few key differences between our labs – first, the MAL does have some preservationist responsibilities that the Signal Lab and the Fundus do not have; for example, we have hardware and software that has been donated to us by individuals hoping we will care for, maintain, and preserve their donations for as long as possible; we also have conventionally valuable hardware such as the machines that ran The Thing BBS and valuable digital literature and art from the 1980s such as Paul Zelevansky’s “SWALLOWS” and bpNichol’s “First Screening.” These preservationalist responsibilities mean the MAL has a more expansive, complex, and perhaps even conflicted mission as its belief in making the lab a space of hands-on experimentation and inquiry is bound to eventually conflict with our responsibility to protect certain particularly valuable holdings. By contrast, Stefan writes me in an email that “Indeed there are no such responsibilities for both of our collections. Vice versa we have a ‘hands-on imperative’ which is the opposite of materialistic preservation for the idea of preserving the knowledge within the apparatuses (that therefor often have to be damaged). We say that to all of our donators so they can decide if they want donate their stuff.”

The other major difference is in how we’ve structured our labs. Perhaps precisely because of the slight difference in our mission, the MAL’s holdings are mostly displayed on desks lining the walls; each machine  has its own desk and its own chair. The benefit to such an arrangement is it facilitates immediate and extended access – visitors often feel comfortable immediately sitting down, turning on the machines, and inserting a floppy disk or a cartridge sitting nearby. The drawback to this arrangement is partly that we’ve found ourselves very limited in the number of machines we can display and partly that there is still something auratic about this method of display – if the machines aren’t on when visitors arrive or without a tour guide on hand to continually remind visitors to play, tinker, hack, the pernicious assumption is that the MAL is a museum and one may only view the media on display as if they’re valuable works of art.

By contrast, both the Signal Lab and the Fundus structure their space by having machines stacked on shelves around the perimeter of the room with empty tables situated in the middle of the room such that visitors can remove machines from the shelves and use the tables for hands-on experiments. This is, I think, a small but fundamental difference in our labs as the infrastructure of these two Berlin labs is such that there is a firmer, even unapologetic rejection of the aura of the museum and an emphasis on serious research. As Stefan wrote to me in the same email: “Yes, it’s a question of space and the numbers of items stored in the collections. But the ‘Fundus’ also wants to be a fund (like that in theaters) where the students and researchers take items from the shelf to use in their projects. The fundus itself is not an exhibition. The Signal Lab has some workstation desks but most of the computers are stored in shelfs. The benefit is that the users have to build the systems with its peripherals for themselfs to use them (which – I think – is a form of technological praxis that has to be ‘preserved’ as well).”

Below are pictures I took on my cell phone of both labs – I hope you enjoy the virtual tour. And, finally, I would like to thank Stefan one more time for giving us such a wonderful tour of both labs.